50 Android Development Interview Questions and Answers

May 24, 2023

Navigating the landscape of Android development can be quite challenging, given the breadth and depth of the subject. To help you prepare for an Android development job interview, this article will provide a collection of potential questions, spanning foundational concepts to more specific topics. While the interview will likely feature problem-solving and coding tasks, it’s equally important to brush up on these theoretical aspects.

1. What is Android?

Android is an open-source, Linux-based operating system mainly designed for touchscreen devices like smartphones and tablets. It’s developed by Google and allows developers to write managed code using Java.

2. What is an Activity in Android?

An Activity is a class that represents a single screen with a user interface. Each activity in an application is independent of others.

3. Explain the lifecycle of an Android Activity.

An Android Activity goes through different stages: onCreate(), onStart(), onResume(), onPause(), onStop(), and onDestroy(). It starts with onCreate() and ends with onDestroy().

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4. What is an Intent in Android?

Intent in Android is a software abstraction that represents an operation to be performed. Intents facilitate communication between components, such as activities and services.

5. What’s the difference between an explicit Intent and an implicit Intent?

An explicit Intent is used to call a specific component, whereas an implicit Intent is used to invoke components based on the action to be performed.

6. What is a Service in Android?

A Service is an Android component that runs in the background to perform long-running operations or to perform work for remote processes.

7. What’s the difference between a started Service and a bound Service?

A started Service is a service that an application component starts by calling startService(), whereas a bound Service is a service that the application component binds to by calling bindService().

8. What is a Content Provider in Android?

A Content Provider is a component that encapsulates data and provides it to applications. It’s primarily used for sharing data between applications.

9. What is a Broadcast Receiver in Android?

A Broadcast Receiver is an Android component that responds to system-wide broadcast messages from the system or other applications.

10. What are Loaders in Android?

Loaders are used to load data in an Activity or Fragment. They handle asynchronous loading of data and monitor the source of their data, delivering new results when the content changes.

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11. What is the role of the AndroidManifest.xml file?

The AndroidManifest.xml file is an essential file in an Android app. It declares the app’s components and permissions and can also declare the minimum API level the app requires, hardware features it needs, and libraries it links to.

12. What is ADB in Android?

ADB stands for Android Debug Bridge. It’s a versatile command-line tool that lets developers communicate with an Android device.

13. What is ANR in Android?

ANR stands for “Application Not Responding.” This is a dialog that Android shows when an application is unresponsive for a long period.

14. What are Fragments in Android?

Fragments represent multiple screens inside one activity. They are reusable and can be combined in different ways for a variety of screen configurations.

15. Explain the Fragment lifecycle in Android.

Fragment lifecycle includes several stages: onAttach(), onCreate(), onCreateView(), onActivityCreated(), onStart(), onResume(), onPause(), onStop(), onDestroyView(), onDestroy(), and onDetach().

16. What is the ViewModel in Android?

ViewModel is a class designed to store and manage UI-related data in a lifecycle conscious way. It allows data to survive configuration changes such as screen rotations.

17. What is LiveData in Android?

LiveData is an observable data holder class that is lifecycle-aware. This means that it respects the lifecycle of other app components, such as activities, fragments, or services.

18. What are the different types of Notifications in Android?

Android provides several types of notifications, including ongoing notifications, expandable notifications, high-priority notifications, and compact notifications.

19. What is the Room persistence library in Android?

The Room persistence library provides an abstraction layer over SQLite, making it easier to work with databases. It leverages the power of SQLite while addressing some of its shortcomings.

20. What are Coroutines in Kotlin?

Coroutines are a way of writing asynchronous code sequentially. In other words, they allow you to write asynchronous code as if it were synchronous. This makes the code cleaner and easier to understand.

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21. What is WorkManager in Android?

WorkManager is a library that allows you to schedule background tasks that need to run even if the app exits or the device restarts.

22. What is Data Binding in Android?

Data Binding is a support library that allows you to bind UI components in layouts to data sources in your app using a declarative format rather than programmatically.

23. What is Dependency Injection in Android?

Dependency Injection is a design pattern that allows an object to receive other objects it depends on. In Android, Dagger, Hilt, or Koin are often used for dependency injection.

24. What is Android Jetpack?

Android Jetpack is a suite of libraries and tools that help developers follow best practices, reduce boilerplate code, and write code that works consistently across Android versions and devices.

25. What is the difference between RecyclerView and ListView?

RecyclerView is a more advanced and flexible version of ListView. It’s more efficient in terms of memory usage and offers more features, such as layout managers, item animations, and multiple view types.

26. What is the difference between ConstraintLayout and RelativeLayout?

ConstraintLayout is a more flexible and efficient version of RelativeLayout. It allows you to create complex layouts with a flat view hierarchy, reducing rendering time.

27. What are the storage options in Android?

Android offers several storage options, including Shared Preferences, Internal Storage, External Storage, SQLite databases, and Room databases.

28. What is a Handler in Android?

A Handler allows you to send and process Message and Runnable objects associated with a thread’s MessageQueue.

29. What is an APK in Android?

APK stands for Android Package Kit. It’s the package file format used by the Android operating system for distribution and installation of mobile apps.

30. What is a Gradle in Android?

Gradle is a build system that takes all your source files and converts them into APK (Android Package Kit) files.

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31. What are Instant Apps in Android?

Instant Apps allow users to try an application without having to install it first. Users can experience beautiful and immersive apps, with material design and smooth animations, without installing them on their devices.

32. What are App Widgets in Android?

App Widgets are miniature application views that can be embedded in other applications, such as the home screen, and receive periodic updates.

33. What is a Toast Message in Android?

A Toast provides simple feedback about an operation in a small popup. It only fills the amount of space required for the message and the current activity remains visible and interactive.

34. What is the Android NDK?

NDK stands for Native Development Kit. It’s a toolset that allows developers to write parts of their apps using native-language code such as C and C++.

35. What is the difference between ‘px’, ‘dp’, ‘dip’ and ‘sp’ in Android?

‘px’ is pixels, ‘dp’ or ‘dip’ is density-independent pixels, and ‘sp’ is scale-independent pixels. ‘dp’ and ‘sp’ are device-independent units that should be used in your application to ensure proper UI display on different screens.

36. What is the difference between Serializable and Parcelable in Android?

Both are interfaces that can be implemented to serialize a class. Parcelable is faster and meant for serialization of objects in Android. Serializable uses reflection and is slower.

37. What are the common use cases for using an Intent?

Intents are used to navigate between activities and pass data between them, start services, or deliver broadcasts.

38. What are the three key loops when monitoring an activity?

The entire lifetime, visible lifetime, and foreground lifetime are the three key loops when monitoring an activity.

39. What is AIDL in Android?

AIDL, or Android Interface Definition Language, handles the interface requirements between a client and a service so both can communicate at the same level through interprocess communication or IPC.

40. What are the states of the Activity Lifecycle?

Activity states include: Resumed (running state), Paused, and Stopped. The system can kill a stopped activity to reclaim resources.

41. What is DDMS?

DDMS stands for Dalvik Debug Monitor Server. It provides a wide array of debugging features including: port forwarding, screen capture, thread and heap information, network traffic tracking, and more.

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42. What is the Android Open Source Project (AOSP)?

AOSP is the initiative and the project to maintain and develop the open-source version of the Android operating system.

43. What are the different ways to store data in your Android app?

You can use Shared Preferences, Files (internal or external), SQLite databases, Room databases, or on the network.

44. What is DEX in Android?

DEX stands for Dalvik Executable, which is a file format containing compiled code written for Android.

45. What is ART in Android?

ART stands for Android Runtime. It replaced the Dalvik Virtual Machine and uses ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation to compile apps when they are installed.

46. What is the difference between ‘match_parent’ and ‘fill_parent’ in Android layouts?

There is no difference, ‘fill_parent’ was renamed to ‘match_parent’ in API Level 8.

47. What is ProGuard in Android?

ProGuard is a tool that comes with the Android SDK. It shrinks, optimizes, and obfuscates your code to make it harder to reverse engineer.

48. What are the differences between a domain-specific language (DSL) and a regular language?

DSL is specifically designed to solve problems in a particular domain and is not intended to solve problems outside it, whereas a general-purpose language is designed to solve problems in many domains.

49. What is the role of the R class in Android?

The R class is a reference to any resource defined within the res directory of your Android project. It is automatically generated and updated whenever you save your project.

50. What is Doze Mode in Android?

Doze mode is an energy-saving mode that was introduced in Android 6.0 Marshmallow. It conserves battery life by deferring background CPU and network activity for apps when the device is idle.

While these questions are a good start, remember that Android development encompasses a wide array of skills and tools. Practical experience with Android Studio, understanding how to work with APIs, version control systems like Git, different architectural patterns like MVC, MVP, MVVM, and MVI, and testing strategies are all crucial for an Android development role. Good luck with your interview!